Top 5 must visit Tourist Places in Goa

1. Dudhsagar Waterfall

Dudhsagar Waterfall is a four-way waterfall
located on the Goa-Karnataka border, close to Goa. It's very mesmerizing, because you see that sea water shakes fall. The whole phenomenon is usually described as clouds falling from the sky, which descend directly to the Earth.

The waterfall is surrounded by lush greenery which provides an additional beauty for the place.

Dudhsagar Waterfall is the fourth largest waterfall in India, at 320 meters or at 1017 feet height. This is a great day trip to Goa.

How to reach Dudhsagar waterfall from Goa

Dudhsagar Falls is situated on the border of Goa and Karnataka. Assuming that you are living in Panjim or Margao, you would like to go by road. The journey is not really so much of a problem.

Dudhsagar waterfall is 65 kilometers to Mollem. It is just 40 kms from Margao. Most people finally take a taxi for Dudhsagar waterfall, although you can also take a bus. The jeeps of the Forest Department will take you to the ground. Private vehicles can not enter this area. There are also two trains per day.

2. Colva Beach
Colva beach is one of the largest and striking beaches of South Goa, which has fine white sand powder and is surrounded by coconut palms, which extends from Bogmalo to Cabo de Ram along the southern coast. Colva beach is very beautiful and there is a stream flowing in it. Scattered with colonial-style villas and the concrete hotel around the beach looks more stunning, with a wider collection of snack bars. During the day, number of Tourist roam at this place. Colva beach is located 6 km from Margao city in South Goa.

3. Tambdi Surla Temple

The small Shiva (Mahadev) temple of Tambadi Surla, situated about 18 km away from the Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary gate, is the only living structure of Kadamba Yadav dynasty.

There is a pillar and three towers in the temple dedicated to Lord Shiva and there is a temple in front of a tower. In February / March hundreds of devotees gather here on the festival of Mahashivaratri. It is good to plan a day trip to explore the jungle walk at an altitude of 609 meters.

4. Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary

Altogether, if someone wants to see the forest as tall trees with rare plants, where hardly any light reaches the ground, Cotigao Sanctuary is the place to go.

It is located in Canacona taluka in the south of Goa. It is located about 2 km from Poinguinim. Nature interpretation center, run by the Forest Department, is a valuable resource of knowledge. 

Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary was established in 1969 to protect a remote and vulnerable area of ​​forest lining located on the Goa / Karnataka border. In the area of ​​86 square kilometers of mixed deciduous woodland, the reserve is sure to inspire the tree lovers, but there is less chance of seeing many wildlife: its tigers and leopards were preyed long ago, while Gazelle, Sloth Beers, Sahi, Panther reportedly rarely appear in the jungle, the highway lamps are rarely seen.

One can reach here by own transport, and also buses running South on NH-17 karwar via chaudi will drop you within 2 km of gates. However to explore inner reaches of santuary one need their own transport.

5. Arvalam Waterfall

Arvalam or Harvalam waterfalls, which falls from a height of 50 meters, is one of the most amazing places. This waterfall is located about 2 km from Sanquelim and 8 km from Bicholim in North Goa.

Arwalam Waterfall is a very beautiful and beautiful picnic spot. This fascinating waterfall is a mind-blowing experience with Rudreshwar temple in its vicinity. The temple holds significance for those Hindus who believe in releasing the soul on the 12th day after death.

The best time to visit this site is after the abundant monsoon when it presents a magnificent aspect. During the monsoon, the flow of water is quite low. It has all-round greenery with fruit-laden trees, along with various fruits like banana coconut palm etc.

Nearby ancient caves combine a touch of antiquity for this picturesque location, which finds a major attraction as a favorite shooting destination for filmmakers. The rock cut caves are located nearby. The government has also developed a park from which the view of the waterfall can be seen calmly.




Optical Fibre (Types and Application)

Introduction:
Copper wires and co-axial cables carries a electronic information inthe form of radio waves and
microwaves. However information carring capacity in these is limited due to their limited band width and not sufficient as perthe modern communication technique. If we use light waves insted of microwave or radiowave the number of signal can be increased. The light wave transmission is possible in optical fibre.
Optical fibre are made up of plastic conduicts or glass as thin like a human hair.  which is designed to guide wave along the length of the fibre with the help of succesive total internal reflections from side walls of optical fibre. The light moves in zig-zag path. Major fraction comes out from one end of the optical fibre a small fraction of light escape through side walls.

Construction:
Optical Fibre consists at three region.
(i) The innermost region through which light pass called core.
(ii) The core area is surrounded by a central area called cladding.
(iii) Sheath the outermost region. Sheath products the core and cladding from abrasion contamination and give mechanical strength to fibre.

Types of optical fibre:
(i) Single Mode Fibre (SMF)
(ii) Multi Mode Fibre (MMF)
A Single Mode Fibre can support a one mode of propogation and small core region while Multi Mode Fibre has large core and support more than one mode of propogation. Single Mode Fibre and Multi Mode Fibre are furthur classified depending upon Index Profile. Index Profile of a MMF can be either Step Index (SI) or Graded Index (GRIN) type. SMF  is usually Step Index.
(a) Single Mode Step Index Fibre:
It consists of a very thin core of uniform refractive index surrounded by a cladding of refractive index lower than that of core. It is known as Step Index Fibre because refractive index abruptly changes at the core-cladding boundary. The Fibre is surrounded by some opaque protective sheath.
(b) Multi Mode Step Index Fibre:
It is same as Single Mode Step Index Fibre with exception of a large core diameter.
(c) Grain Index Fibre (GRIN) :
GRIN is a Multi Mode Fibre which has got concentric layers of refractive indices. Which means that the refractive index varies with distance from the fibre axis. It has a large core diameter.

Application of Optical Fibre:
(i)  A coherent optical fibre bundle can greatly enhance the size of the image on the TV screen. In case we have to use the conventional method of getting larger images then the projection systems becomes quick bulky and unmanageable.
(ii) Fibre optics are finding large number of application in medical fields. Many parts of the human body which are otherwise inaccesible can be studied by illumination with fibre optics. A bundle of MMF is used to illumination a part of human organ and the other part to collect the reflected light. This fibrescopic technique is employed for endoscopic applications. Fibre optics can be employed to attach a detached retina or rectify other eye defects using lasers.
(iii) In heart problems also lasers angioplasty is replaced the ballon angioplasty and bypass surgery.
(iv) Main application of Optical fibre is in communication. (transmittting light signal through optical fibre)

7 Tips for Good Health

Here are 7 tips for you to maintain good health:

1. Stay Hydrated
How to maintain good health? It is as simple as drinking lots of water and fluid to keep yourself
hydrated all the time. It is necessary to drink water regularly in the day because we keep losing water in the form of urine and sweat from our body. Water performs many important functions like taking out bacteria from your bladder, helping in digestion, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, preventing constipation and maintaining electrolyte (sodium) balance. Doctors recommend that a person should consume at least two and a half liters of water a day. To replenish the loss of water, it is necessary. If the person's activity is too much for the athletes or those who regularly visit the gym then the intake of water becomes very high.

2.Brush up on hygiene
Some people do not know how to properly brush their teeth. Many people do not brush, and do not see a dentist regularly. Hold your toothbrush in the same way that holds a pencil, and brush for at least two minutes.
It includes  junction of teeth and gums, tongue and mouth roof. You do not need a fancy, angled toothbrush - just a strong, soft-bristle that you change every month.

3. Burn fat during Intervals
To improve your fitness quickly and reduce weight, tap the joy of interval training. Set up a treadmill or step machine on the interval program, where your speed and charge changes from minute to minute. Gradually, create every minute and return to the starting speed. Repeat this routine. Not only will it be less monotonous, but you can train for less time and get more results.

4. Get enough sleep
Sleep deprivation affects your mental health because it can cause emotional and psychological problems. Go to bed at a reasonable time and try to take an 8-hour sleep. This will help you get more and more recovery and will face with more enthusiasm the next day.

5. Healthy Eating

Healthy food is important because the food you eat can have a huge effect on your health. A nutritious, balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables is necessary to maintain a healthy body and mind, especially in later life.

6. Giving up smoking
Quitting smoking will have a positive effect on your health. You will breathe more easily; Your circulation, skin, hair and teeth will improve; And the risk of your serious illness will be reduced.

7.Be positive
The best way to put a spring in your step is to keep a positive attitude. Do something every day in which you enjoy Go to a friend, listen to music, read a book or just take time to think about happy thoughts!

Environmental Pollution (its effect)

There are various types of pollution, we will discuss two major types of pollution in this article. (Air, water)

Air pollution:
Air Pollution is basically the presence of foreign substances in excessive amounts in air which adversely affects the welfare of the person or damages the property. Wherever we live, the air is contaminated with some degree. The earliest pollutants mentioned in the atmosphere were of natural origin; Like any other natural source like smoke, smoke, ash and gases But the real problems of air pollution came to the scene when human-induced or ethnological sources began to emit pollution.

Effects of air pollution on humans

The air we breathe in, there are not only qualities that sustain life, but there are also harmful properties of life. An average person breathes 22,000 times a day and takes 16 kilograms of air every day. Impurity in the inhaled air can affect human health in a number of ways depending on the nature and concentration of pollution, the duration of exposure and the age group of the receptor. Depending on the chemical nature of pollution, some pollutants may be harmful when present in small concentrations and others occur only when they are present in high concentrations. The period of exposure to polluted air is also an important factor. Babies, elderly and lungs or people with chronic diseases of the heart are more sensitive to the effects of air pollution. It has also been observed that during the winter season the impact of air pollution on human health is the worst or maximum, when the level of pollution reaches a peak. The different health effects are as follows:
(i) Irritation can be due to many air pollutants like NO, Pan, Smoke, Particles, etc.
(ii) Burning of nose and throat is due to the use of  sulphur dioxide, NO, Pesticides, etc.
(iii) Gaseous pollutants such as water, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbons may also cause odour disorder on low concentrations.
(iv) Burning of respiratory tract may be due to CO etc.
(v) Increase in mortality and distortion rate.
(vi) A variety of pollen, in particular, can trigger asthma attacks.
(vii) Heavy metals, such as lead, can enter the body through the lungs and can be poisonous. Its high concentrations can damage the liver and kidneys, and can cause fertility and abnormalities in pregnancy, and the mental development of children is affected.

Water Pollution:
Water pollution is the state of deviation from the pure state, due to which its normal properties and functions are affected. To be more accurate, water pollution can be defined as the presence of some foreign substances reducing the quality of water and making it inappropriate for use.
Some of the earliest notable signs of water pollution are invasive odour from rivers, streams, lakes and ocean beaches; Oil and greasy material floating on surfaces of oil bodies;  Bad taste of drinking water; Reduction of aquatic life in fresh water bodies.

Effects of Water pollution
Waste oils, fats, and grease can enter water from several sources .These will form a thin film on the water surface which prevents the exchange of oxygen with the atmosphere causing reduction of water oxygen saturation. Spillage from oil tankers in sea will cause marine pollution and shore contamination. Oil slicks are responsible for the death of many birds. Oil reduces the thermal insulation and resistance to cold, irritates digestive system and produces toxic effects. A badly oiled shore can be largely denuded of animal  life and sea weeds are also affected.
Some organic and inorganic chemical substances are toxic to plants, animal and humans. These toxic cause injury leading to death of living organisms. The effects will depend upon the concentration, period of action and the metabolism of the organism.
Chemical nutrients are required by plants and animals for maintaining their growth and metabolism. Nitrates and phosphates occur in water in small quantities. These are sufficient to  maintain balanced biological growth. The nutrient levels slowly rise as a result of the bio-degradation of dead organic material. This rise in nutrients  is called ageing or eutrophication.
Waste that are discharged into water contain pathogenic organism that are capable of transmitting human diseases. Bacteria are responsible for cholera, typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery, gastroenteritis, Virus may cause poliomyelitis, infective hepatitis, and echo and consackil fevers. Round worm, beef and pork tape worms may also cause diseases.

What is Rainwater Harvesting?

What is Rainwater Harvesting?

Over the centuries, people have relied on rain water harvesting for supply of water for domestic, landscape, livestock and agricultural uses. Prior to the development of large centralized water supply systems, rainwater was collected from roofs and stored in tanks stored on site. With the development of large, dependable water treatment and dissolution system and more economical well drilling equipment, rain harvesting system has forgotten all, even if they provide a source of pure, soft water.
Rainwater harvesting is defined as a method for collecting, storing and preserving the local surface flow for later use. Three types of water harvesting are covered by rain water harvesting:
(i) Water collected from roof top, courtyard and similar compact or treated surface is used for home purpose or garden crops, or groundwater recharge.
(ii) Micro-catchment water harvesting is a way of collecting surface flow from a small grip area and stored in the root zone of adjacent intrusion basin. Basin is planted with three, bushes or annual crops.
(iii) Macro-catchment water harvesting, also called cutting from outer grip, is the case where the flats running from hill slopes are told in the crop area situated on hill foot in flat terrain.

The most common harvesting of rain water involves collecting water from the rooftops of buildings, in which water collected from roofs of buildings and storage in rainwater tank is included. Buildings can be easily found in the cities and towns that are collected from roofs. To capture this water it is necessary to bring the flow of rain water from roof gutter to rainwater storage tank. By doing so, water can be collected and used for various uses. If people are dependent on collective rain water and are not connected to any city's water supply, then the collected water will be especially important for them. If people are from the city, it is possible to replace at least one substantial part of your fresh water requirements by holding and storing rain water from your roof.
Pumping rain water into small ponds or pumping them from many collection areas directly into the ground is also in use in some places in India. From the countries where artificial recharge of ground water is being done in the context of modern technology, the period is Holland. Certainly there are many places in India such as the Ralegaon Siddhi Watershed where rainwater harvesting is done in many locally accessible ways to charge water of sub-surfaces.